What does ibid mean

Meaning of ibid.

Ibid. comes from the Latin word ibidem, meaning "same place." In an academic context, ibid. alludes to something that has been mentioned previously.

Function of ibid.

Ibid. is used in the academic world to refer to the preceding reference. In other words, if you read ibid. it means the reference to the information you are reading is the preceding source.

This word is commonly found in legal citations in its abbreviated form "Id."

Styles that use ibid.

Not all citation styles allow the use of Ibid. The styles that use this term are:

  • Chicago (the new 17th edition encourages the use of shortened citations instead of ibid.)
  • Harvard

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