How to cite SPSS

SPSS is a popular statistical analysis software package that is used by researchers around the world. SPSS stands for "Statistical Package for the Social Sciences" and has a long history dating back to 1968. Originally developed by SPSS Inc., it was acquired by IBM in 2007 and is since running under the name "IBM SPSS Statistics".

APA citation

According to the APA Publication Manual SPSS is a commonly known software package and it is enough to provide the name along with the version number in the text. A citation in the reference list is not required.


The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 27).

We have also prepared a reference list entry for you if a journal or your supervisor requires you to do so:

IBM Corp. (2020). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 27.0) [Computer software]. IBM Corp.

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