How to cite audiotapes, videotapes, or DVDs in AMA

APA audiotape citation

To cite audiotapes, videotapes, DVDs audiotapes, videotapes, DVDs in a reference entry in AMA style 11st edition include the following elements:

  1. Author(s) of item: Give the last name, and initials of up to six authors (e.g. Watson J). For more authors only the first three are listed, followed by et al.
  2. Title of the item: Italicize the title and capitalize the first letter of each major word.
  3. Format: Describe the type of format, e.g. DVD, video file, etc.
  4. Place of publication: Give the name of the city in which the publishing entity was located at the time of publication.
  5. Broadcasting company: Abbreviate the publisher's name.
  6. Year of publication: Give the year of publication.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of audiotapes, videotapes, DVDs audiotapes, videotapes, DVDs in AMA style 11st edition:

Author(s) of item. Title of the item [Format]. Place of publication: Broadcasting company; Year of publication.

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the AMA style guidelines in action:


An audio file

Mars, Roman. Sound and Health: Cities [Audio file]. Oakland, CA: 99pi; 2019.

A film in DVD format

Tarantino, Quentin. Kill Bill: Volume 1 [DVD]. Los Angeles, CA: Miramax; 2003.

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