There are plenty of citation styles you can use for research papers but do you actually know which ones are used specifically in the business field? In order to ease your way into your paper, we compiled a list of the main citation styles used for business. Each style includes an explanation of its system, just like reference examples.
Harvard style is a popular format used in business papers. Its author-date citation system is very easy to adopt, as it consists of in-text citations composed by the author's last name and the year of publication that refer to a source list at the end of the paper.
Check out these Harvard referencing resources
Harvard referencing examples
An in-text citation in Harvard style:
A similar research was carried out in the field of entrepreneurship (Dheer, 2018).
A bibliography entry in Harvard style:
Dheer, R. J. S. (2018) “Entrepreneurship by immigrants: a review of existing literature and directions for future research,” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14(3), pp. 555–614.
The Modern Language Association style is known for being the most versatile citation format, for this reason, it can be used in the humanities, and business fields alike. It uses an author-page citation system, which consists of in-text citations formed by the author's last name and the page number of the source. These point to a reference list at the end of the paper.
Check out these MLA style resources
MLA style examples
An in-text citation in MLA style:
However, a research proved this theory right (Falk and Hagsten 123).
A bibliography entry in MLA style:
Falk, Martin, and Eva Hagsten. “Employment Impacts of Market Novelty Sales: Evidence for Nine European Countries.” Eurasian Economic Review, vol. 8, no. 2, 2018, pp. 119–137.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is a citation format used primarily in the social sciences, education and engineering, but its also used for business papers. The citing system of APA consists of two elements: in-text citations and a reference list. This system is known as an author-date style, which refers to giving the author’s last name and year of publication as an in-text citation (e.g. Smith 2003). These in-text citations refer the reader to a list at the end of the paper, which includes information about each source used in the paper.
Check out these APA style resources
APA style examples
An in-text citation in APA 7th style:
Recently, much debate has been stirred regarding digital economy (Banalieva & Dhanaraj, 2019).
A bibliography entry in APA 7th style:
Banalieva, E. R., & Dhanaraj, C. (2019). Internalization theory for the digital economy. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(8), 1372–1387.
Chicago style is another form of citation used for business papers and journals. Its system offers two types of format: a notes and bibliography system, and an author-date system. The notes and bibliography system is mostly used for the humanities, whereas the author-date system is used in science and business. The latter is composed by in-text citations formed by the author's last name and date of publication that point to a reference list at the end of the paper.
Check out these Chicago style resources
Chicago style examples
An in-text citation in Chicago author-date style:
Clearly, an opposing view dominated the topic (Tuncay 2018).
A bibliography entry in Chicago author-date style:
Tuncay, Merve. 2018. “Do Political Risks Matter in the Financial Markets?: Evidence from Turkey.” Eurasian Economic Review 8 (2): 209–27.
The Journal of Business Research style offers a guide on how to format citations for any manuscript submission. It follows a straightforward author-date system, which you can see on the JBR style guide linked below.
Check out these JBR style resources
JBR style examples
An in-text citation in JBR style:
As seen in the journey of becoming an entrepreneur (Mahto & McDowell 2018).
A bibliography entry in JBR style:
Mahto, R. V., & McDowell, W. C. (2018). Entrepreneurial motivation: a non-entrepreneur’s journey to become an entrepreneur. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14(3), 513–526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-018-0513-8
The Journal of Business Ethics style provides specific rules on how to format citations for any manuscript submission. It follows a simple author-date system, which you can see on on the JBE style guide linked below.
Check out these JBE style resources
JBE style examples
An in-text citation in JBE style:
As a result, high-tech and low-tech industries were studied (Aldieri and Vinci 2018).
A bibliography entry in JBE style:
Aldieri, L., & Vinci, C. P. (2018). Innovation effects on employment in high-tech and low-tech industries: evidence from large international firms within the triad. Eurasian Business Review, 8(2), 229–243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40821-017-0081-9
Frequently Asked Questions about citation styles used for business
🏆 What are the top 3 citation styles used for business papers?
The top 3 citation styles used for business papers are Harvard, MLA and APA styles.
🍰 What is the easiest way to make a reference list for business papers?
The easiest way to create a reference list for business papers is by using the BibGuru citation generator. This generator creates the fastest and most accurate citations possible, which will save you time and worries. The best part is, it is completely free!
🤓 Which author-date citation styles can be used for business papers?
The author-date citation styles used for business papers are JBE, JBR, Chicago and Harvard.
💸 What are the most popular business journals?
📓 Do business papers require a cover page?
Whether your business paper requires a cover page or not depends on the journal requirements you are planning to submit to, or the instructions of your professor. However, most professional business papers do include a cover page.